Solving the Problem of a Plurality of Popes

In 1378, under Pope Gregory XI, the papacy returned to Rome, ending the Avignon Papacy.  After his death, however, Pope Urban VI was considered so overbearing that the cardinals also elected Pope Clement VII, who established himself at Avignon.  This split, known as the Papal Schism or Western Schism, would last until 1417, and at times the Catholic Church had three simultaneous popes.

Approximately fifteen years into the schism, seeking a solution the problem, the theologians at the University of Paris had large chest placed into the cloister of the Mathurins.  They asked that anyone with a solution to the schism write it down and place it into a slot in the lid of the chest.  All in all, over ten thousands solutions were suggested, which were read through by fifty-five professors in a desperate attempt to find an acceptable solution.

The proposals were mostly categorized into three groups.  One group proposed that all current popes abdicate and a new one be elected.  Another proposed arbitration between the popes that would result in a single, legitimate pontiff.  The third called for a new convention of the Catholic cardinals who would elect a new pope, delegitimizing the previous ones.

The final solution was a combination of the first and third proposals.  Pope Gregory XII, one of the Roman popes, excommunicated the Avignon pope and resigned, allowing the cardinals to elect Martin V as pope.  Some still supported the Avignon and Pisa popes, but Martin V had the vast majority of Catholic support, and with his election, the Papal Schism essentially ended.


The Naming of Soapland

In 1951, the first Turkish baths began to be offered in Japan.  By 1956, they’re offering “special services,” which begins to attract government attention.  By 1960, customers can get sex while visiting a Turkish bath.  These Turkish baths are essentially happy ending baths, and by the 1980s, they have millions of customers a year.

However, the Turkish embassy in Tokyo began receiving calls from inquisitive customers about prices and reservations.  Once the Turkish embassy realized what mix-up, they complained to the Japanese government, until, in 1985, the 110 members of the trade association of Turkish bathhouses came up with a plan for a new name that would apply to all of them.  To come up with the name the held a nationwide contest.  About 2200 suggestions were submitted, and the new name chosen was Soapland.  Today, these facilities still exist in Japan, offering customers the chance to be cleaned by a beautiful women, along with the satisfaction of other needs.